# Difference between revisions of "RAREMETAL METHOD"

## INTRODUCTION

The key idea behind meta-analysis with RAREMETAL is that various gene-level test statistics can be reconstructed from single variant score statistics and that, when the linkage disequilibrium relationships between variants are known, the distribution of these gene-level statistics can be derived and used to evaluate signifi-cance. Single variant statistics are calculated using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method. Our method has been published in Liu et. al. The main formulae are tabulated in the following:

## KEY FORMULAE

### NOTATIONS

We denote the following to describe our methods: $U_{i,k}$ is the score statistic for the $i^{th}$ variant from the $k^{th}$ study $V_{ij,k}$ is the covariance of the score statistics between the $i^{th}$ and the $j^{th}$ variant from the $k^{th}$ study $U_{i,k}$ and $V_{ij,k}$ are described in detail in RAREMETALWORKER method. $\mathbf{U_k}$ is the vector of score statistics of rare variants in a gene from the $k^{th}$ study. $\mathbf{V_k}$ is the variance-covariance matrix of score statistics of rare variants in a gene from the $k^{th}$ study, or $\mathbf{V_k} = cov(\mathbf{U_k})$ $S$ is the number of studies $f_{i}$ is the pooled allele frequency of $i^{th}$ variant $f_{i,k}$ is the allele frequency of $i^{th}$ variant in $k^{th}$ study ${\delta_{k}}$ is the deviation of trait value of $k^{th}$ study $\mathbf{w^T} = (w_1,w_2,...,w_m)^T$ is the vector of weights for $m$ rare variants in a gene.

### SINGLE VARIANT META ANALYSIS

Single variant meta-analysis score statistic can be reconstructed from score statistics and their variances generated by each study, assuming that samples are unrelated across studies. Define meta-analysis score statistics as $U_{meta_i}=\sum_{k=1}^S {U_{i,k}}$

and its variance $V_{meta_i}=\sum_{k=1}^S{V_{ii,k}}$.

Then the score test statistics for the $i^{th}$ variant $T_{meta_i}$ asymptotically follows standard normal distribution $T_{meta_i}=U_{meta_i}\bigg/\sqrt{V_{meta_i}}=\sum_{k=1}^S {U_{i,k}}\bigg/\sqrt{\sum_{k=1}^S{V_{ii,k}}} \sim\mathbf{N}(0,1)$.

Optimized method for unbalanced studies (--useExact): $U_{meta_i}=\sum_{k=1}^S {U_{i,k}/\hat{\Omega_{k}}}-\sum_{k=1}^S{2n_{k}{\delta_{k}^{2}(f_{i}-f_{i,k})}}$ $V_{meta_i}={\sigma^{2}}\sum_{k=1}^S{(V_{ii,k}{\Omega_{k}}-4n_{k}(ff'-f_{k}f_{k}'))}$ ${\sigma^{2}}=\sum_{k=1}^S{((n_{k}-1){\Omega_{k}}+n_{k}{\delta_{k}^{2}})}/(n-1)$

### BURDEN META ANALYSIS

Burden test has been shown to be powerful detecting a group of rare variants that are unidirectional in effects. Once single variant meta analysis statistics are constructed, burden test score statistic for a gene can be easily reconstructed as $T_{meta_{burden}}=\mathbf{w^TU_{meta}}\bigg/\sqrt{\mathbf{w^TV_{meta}w}} \sim\mathbf{N}(0,1)$,

where $\mathbf{U_{meta}} = (U_{meta_1},U_{meta_2},...,U_{meta_m})^T$ and $\mathbf{V_{meta}}=cov(\mathbf{U_{meta}})$, representing a vector of single variant meta-analysis scores of $m$ variants in a gene and the covariance matrix of the scores across $m$ variants.

### VT META ANALYSIS

Including variants that are not associated to phenotype can hurt power. Variable threshold test is designed to choose the optimal allele frequency threshold amongst rare variants in a gene, to gain power. The test statistic is defined as the maximum burden score statistic calculated using every possible frequency threshold $T_{meta_{VT}}=\max(T_{b\left(f_1\right)},T_{b\left(f_2\right)},\dots,T_{b\left(f_m\right)})$,

where $T_{b\left(f_i\right)}$ is the burden test statistic under allele frequency threshold $f_i$, and can be constructed from single variant meta-analysis statistics using $T_{b\left(f_j\right)}=\boldsymbol{\phi}_{f_j}^\mathbf{T}\mathbf{U_{meta}}\bigg/\sqrt{\boldsymbol{\phi}_{f_j}^\mathbf{T}\mathbf{V_{meta}}\boldsymbol{\phi}_{f_j}}$,

where $j$ represents any allele frequency in a group of rare variants, $\boldsymbol{\phi}_{f_j}$ is a vector of 0 and 1, indicating if a variant is included in the analysis using frequency threshold $f_i$.

As described by Lin et. al, the p-value of this test can be calculated analytically using the fact that the burden test statistics together follow a multivariate normal distribution with mean $\mathbf{0}$ and covariance $\boldsymbol{\Omega}$, written as $\left(T_{b\left(f_1\right)},T_{b\left(f_2\right)},\dots,T_{b\left(f_m\right)}\right)$ $\sim\mathbf{MVN}\left(\mathbf{0},\boldsymbol{\Omega}\right)$,

where $\boldsymbol{\Omega_{ij}}=\frac{\boldsymbol{\phi}_{f_i}^T\mathbf{V_{meta}}\boldsymbol{\phi}_{f_j}}{\sqrt{\boldsymbol{\phi}_{f_i}^T\mathbf{V_{meta}}\boldsymbol{\phi}_{f_i}}\sqrt{\boldsymbol{\phi}_{f_j}^T\mathbf{V_{meta}}\boldsymbol{\phi}_{f_j}}}$.

### SKAT META ANALYSIS

SKAT is most powerful when detecting genes with rare variants having opposite directions in effect sizes. Meta-analysis statistic can also be re-constructed using single variant meta-analysis scores and their covariances $\mathbf{Q}=\mathbf{{U_{meta}}^T}\mathbf{W}\mathbf{U_{meta}}$,

where $\mathbf{W}$ is a diagonal matrix of weights of rare variants included in a gene.

As shown in Wu et. al, the null distribution of the $\mathbf{Q}$ statistic follows a mixture chi-sqaured distribution described as $\mathbf{Q}\sim\sum_{i=1}^m{\lambda_i\chi_{1,i}^2},$ where $\left(\lambda_1,\lambda_2,\dots,\lambda_m\right)$ are eigen values of $\mathbf{V_{meta}^\frac{1}{2}}\mathbf{W}\mathbf{V_{meta}^\frac{1}{2}}$.